Twitter Spaces’ Sensory Guide & Social Narrative – Design

Twitter Spaces’ Sensory Guide & Social Narrative


We designed and evaluated a sensory guide and social narrative to support neurodivergent users in auditory social media environments


Neurodivergent users lack support in social media environments, where sensory stimuli and social contexts can be complex and uncertain


Designing and evaluating a sensory guide and social narrative, adapted from classroom/museum guidelines specifically for Twitter Spaces. Go to sensory guide and social narrative

Research Objectives

  1. Determine whether neurodivergent users want sensory guides and social narratives adapted for social media
  2. Find out if users find them helpful in setting expectations for social media interaction


Lead accessibility designer and researcher

The Twitter Spaces help center displays the sensory guide for joining and hosting a space, and a social narrative for joining and hosting a space

Design Process

  • We started with a neurodiverse team, some identifying as neurodivergent, others as neurotypical
  • Sensory Guide
    • We defined primary steps in the user journey, like un-muting or leaving
    • The columns listed sensory input categories
    • 3 categories were new, not seen in classroom/museum sensory guides: motion level, imagery level, information level
  • Social Narrative
    • We used classroom/museum guidelines to design a social narrative specifically adapted for social media environments
    • Over 4 iterations, we reduced the 77 steps in the user journey to the 19 focused on social context
    • Each step described how Twitter Spaces might feel


A sensory guide shows a table of all the actions a user can take and what the sound, motion, imagery, and information level will be for each action.
A social narrative details steps of what it will feel like to join a space, including informing users that people they don't know might join, how to find an active space, and what sensory input they'll experience when they first join a space.

Usability Testing

  • We sent a screener survey to ∼20,000 individuals to find current iOS Twitter users who self-identifed as neurodivergent
  • We received about 200 responses, selecting 9 neurodivergent participants (2 non- binary, 3 female, 3 male; ages 26-55)
  • We provided informed consent before conducting 60-minute remote, semi-structured interviews using Google Meet
  • We recorded audio and video, transcribed them, and stored the data on a secure cloud server
  • We used tasks and thinking aloud
  • Key questions included:
    1. What do you think you can do with the sensory guide?
    2. Will you describe any areas of the social narrative that you had questions about?
  • Finally, we asked participants how likely they would be to use the tools with a 10-point Likert scale:
    • 1 being not likely and 10 being very likely


  1. Participants were “likely” to use the sensory guide and social narrative
    • We used a 10-point Likert scale, 1 being “not likely” and 10 being “very likely” to use the two tools
    • Participants reported:
      1. a median score of 8 and a mean of 8.1 for the sensory guide
      2. a median score of 9.5 and mean of 8.25 for the social narrative
  2. The sensory guide and social narrative set expectations for participants
    • Sensory Guide
      • The majority of participants {P2, P3, P5, P6, P7, P8} were able to describe how it set expectations for an unfamiliar feature
        • P7: “If something was a high trigger point, I would check it [the sensory guide] out and I would not go there.”
        • P2: “I would use all of the descriptions of the sound levels. For me, that’s really helpful. I don’t like loud sounds.”
    • Social Narrative
      • Most participants {P1, P2, P4, P5, P6, P7} could explain its effectiveness within social contexts
        • P5: “It set rules” and it helped them understand “What’s my place in this space?”
        • P6: “Especially for someone who has a little bit of social anxiety, it makes it [Spaces] more understanding [sic]. It calms my nerves as far as what to expect.”


Social Media Sensory Guide

  1. Include sensory stimuli levels for sound, motion, image density, and information
  2. Set sensory stimuli levels by comparing them to the baseline of when a computing device is turned off
  3. Consider how additional modes, like closed captions, might affect sensory stimuli levels

Social Media Social Narrative

  1. Identify your audience and focusing on their experience
  2. Write the narrative in the first person
  3. Identify sensory experiences and points of decision-making
  4. Show how to enter and exit an experience
  5. Provide information about how to handle harmful or challenging social situations such as muting, blocking, reporting, etc.
  6. Keep the narrative short, positive, and direct
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